‘PINE LODGE’ – THE INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT

REGENERATIVE AGRICULTURE CASE STUDY

THE INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT – THE POWER TO DO GOOD

Ian and Wendy Klein have taken recycling to a new level, treating dairy effluent to provide rich fertiliser and effectively managing their on-farm water supplies to operate a profitable and organic farm.

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FARM FACTS | INTRODUCTION | PROPERTY BACKGROUND | CHANGING PRACTICES | SOIL MANAGEMENT | WATER MANAGEMENT | VEGETATION MANAGEMENT | PRODUCTION | OUTCOMES

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FARM FACTS

Shepparton, VIC Central North

ENTERPRISE: Organic irrigated dairy

PROPERTY SIZE: 261 hectares

AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL: 500 mm

ELEVATION: 110 m

MOTIVATION FOR CHANGE

  • Health concerns and the desire to try natural farming methods

INNOVATIONS

  • Using beneficial bacteria to treat dairy effluent for use as fertiliser
  • Laser levelling of paddocks and enhancing the water reticulation system
  • Composting, foliar and bio-fertilisation
  • All organic practices
  • Innovations commenced: 1996

KEY RESULTS

  • Irrigation requirements reduced by 30%
  • On-farm waste producing cost-effective fertiliser, improving soil health
  • 10% price premium on product
  • Reduced veterinary costs

INTRODUCTION

After 24 years of conventional dairying, Ian and Wendy began using organic farming methods, actively turning away from the use of chemical or artificial fertilisers, drugs, antibiotics and hormones that are common in today’s food production. Their underlying principles were to not pollute the environment or use toxic chemicals and to reduce their environmental footprint – while producing a wholesome food and remaining profitable.

The Kleins no longer have problems with excessive amounts of harmful or toxic nutrients and offensive odours from the dairy effluent. By treating their dairy effluent with beneficial bacteria, they are able to use the modified slurry as a fertiliser, returning nutrients to the soil and lowering costs of fertilising the pasture.

Using foliar sprays and bio-fertilisers to address the condition of the soil has also promoted the storage and cycling of organic matter in the soil, making the pastures more productive. The cows are healthier and require fewer interventions to prevent animal health problems.

The Kleins are also using a third less water after establishing a state-of-the-art water reticulation system for irrigating the pastures, linked to laser levelling of the paddocks.

By focusing on keeping nutrients and water on the farm, Ian and Wendy have developed a successful recycling and composting program. In the Klein’s experience, changing from conventional farming practices to working with more natural inputs and processes has reduced their input and veterinarian costs and supports a profitable organic dairy.

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BECOMING ORGANIC

…be open to ideas about investigating and using biological and ecological solutions.

Ian and Wendy moved to Pine Lodge from Dandenong in 1972. Ian had previously farmed in the Heatherton Road area, which is now part of Melbourne’s sprawling suburbs.

After arriving in the district, Ian and Wendy practiced conventional dairy farming on the property for 24 years using skills and knowledge they acquired and learned from local producers and industry experts.

The Kleins recall, “In the early 1970s we were dealing with some personal health issues that were not responding to treatment using conventional medicines. Together we decided to look into natural remedies and soon observed benefits. This realisation soon caused us to question why we were continually working with conventional farm management practices year after year with our cows and pastures”.

“In 1996 we attended a public lecture given by Professor Ian Brighthope that inspired us to trial natural farming methods on our dairy. This involved us extending what we were doing in our home with our own health more broadly to the farm and the dairy cows.”

After undertaking research, Ian and Wendy agreed to perform a trial for two years. They decided that if they did not see any benefit, or saw decline, in a number of indicators then they would return to previous management practices. Indicators selected included whether the costs of milk production became higher, or the health of pastures or cows declined.

image of paddock numbers
Around 300 cows produce milk on the Pine Lodge organic dairy

The Kleins elected to go “cold-turkey”, changing to organic practices across the farming enterprise in 1996. “We do not use synthetic fertilisers, synthetic sprays for weeds and pests nor antibiotics to prevent the animals from getting sick”, Wendy states.

Productivity increases were observed within 12 months and have been consistently improved, though subject to some seasonal variations.

The Kleins continued to inform themselves throughout the change process, and tried various techniques and options until they found what worked for them. This included investment of some capital into new equipment. Ian and Wendy believe that their dairy enterprise is only as good as their understanding of the ecological and biological processes that underpin it.

On becoming organic, Ian remarks, “Where you, the producer, have observed seemingly intractable problems with animal health, soil and vegetation condition, water quality and waste effluent, be open to ideas about investigating and using biological and ecological solutions.” “Often this involves joining an association or group of like-minded individuals, reading books and searching the Internet to find suggestions for fixing problems.”

As advice for others, the Kleins note, “It’s far easier than you think and there are now more opportunities to learn how to farm organically”. “We suggest that you give such solutions ‘a go’ on small areas at first before applying to larger areas. Be prepared to wait for results, remembering that problems were often slow to manifest themselves, so ‘fixes’ may also take some time.”

Ian and Wendy’s business plan was to implement a number of strategies to make the farm more viable, as well as environmentally friendly. This focussed on converting the entire farming enterprise to organic production and recycling as much as possible.

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DAIRY OPERATIONS

image of dairy cows in shed
The Klein dairy has increased from a six to a 60 bail shed, producing significant amounts of effluent.

“We started small; the dairy comprised a relatively small milking operation of around 80 Friesian and Jersey cows in a six bail shed. In those days our operation was based on establishing and managing irrigated improved pastures using synthetic fertilisers, for example, superphosphate and applying chemical sprays to control weeds.”

Production was successful and Ian and Wendy considered the farm had potential to become more productive and be a much larger operation. Over the years they progressively increased the scale of the operation to what would be considered medium-sized in Australian terms. The Kleins now run approximately 300 milking cows, some dry cows, bulls and other young stock on the 261 hectare property. The daily milking of the 300 cows takes place in a 60 bail shed. The dairy represents a major piece of infrastructure on the farm.

A by-product of a large dairy is effluent. The milk shed is equipped with high pressure hoses delivering dam water for washing the floor of the shed and the holding yard. Effluent is mainly a slurry comprising wash down water, manure, urine and other waste.

image of Ian hosing down the dairy
Dam water is used to wash down the dairy.

Large amounts of slurry were accumulating on the Klein farm, collected in a pond next to the dairy. For many years the slurry was regarded as waste because of the high concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus and potassium that would ‘burn’ the pasture if it were not first allowed to air-dry over some time.

Periodically the slurry was dried in the sun before being spread over the pastures. However, more product was being generated than the Kleins could effectively use.

Ian notes, “Because of our increasing herd size and intensification of production we needed to find improvements in managing and disposing of livestock effluent so that it prevented pollution of surface and ground water. As a result our effluent pond was an increasing concern to us. It was characterised by anaerobic bacteria and the sludge was high in ammonia. While we knew the sludge contained potentially beneficial nutrients, but these were unavailable for immediate use on the pastures”.

FROM EFFLUENT TO FERTILISER

image of effluent pond
Milking shed effluent is contained in a large holding pond.

Wendy remarks, “In the first 24 years we did not regard the dairy shed slurry as an asset. It was a smelly mess. We reluctantly managed it and because our knowledge of ecological and biological systems was rudimentary we could not see the opportunity before our eyes”.

“Our experience and advice meant we just did what everyone else was doing.”

With their new approach to natural methods on the dairy, Ian and Wendy aimed to modify the slurry in the pond to achieve higher levels of oxygen by introducing aerobic bacteria. By adding beneficial bacteria to convert the ammonia into amino acid, this made the sludge an economically valuable fertiliser, which could be used as required.

image of effluent tanker
The effluent tanker is used to spray treated effluent onto pastures – with visible results.

Ian notes, “As a result we no longer had an excess of organic matter and toxic nutrient levels, it also ameliorated the pH to an acceptable level, reduced the offensive odours and removed suspended solids and salts in the slurry”.

The once problematic effluent is now contained and managed in a large holding pond and after being treated is used as fertiliser for the pastures. The results are noticeable.

“When we spread the modified slurry onto the pastures we began to observe almost immediate benefits. Where a strip of pasture is missed during spraying, you clearly see that the grass is less vigorous and not as bright green in colour.”

The effluent-based fertiliser is complemented by the other natural biological and ecological activities being performed at Pine Lodge in support of recycling nutrients.

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RECYCLING THROUGH COMPOST

Composting has become a key part of the on-farm recycling program, with all plain cardboard boxes, calf shed bedding, untreated sawdust, domestic wastes and even dead stock composted for farm fertiliser. The Kleins view these activities as reducing the farm’s environmental impact, as well as supplying free fertiliser and helping to build humus in the soil. They also see that it gives the opportunity to learn more about composting and the benefits to be gained from it.

Others in the community who want to be a part of what the Kleins are doing are now saving cardboard and other materials to add to the compost heap. By performing their own recycling program through composting, materials destined for land fill are much reduced.

In Wendy’s words, “As nothing, other than produce, leaves the farm, the nutrients contained in the soil stay where they are needed – in the soil – hence no nutrients (or chemicals) find their way into waterways to contribute to blue-green algae problems of some of our water storages”.

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IRRIGATED PASTURES

We laser level the bays …to give us much higher water use efficiency.

The Pine Lodge property is within the Goulburn Valley irrigation region of north-central Victoria. The main water storage for this region is Lake Eildon, which is on the Goulburn River about 100km south-east. Water stored in Lake Eildon is released into the Goulburn River when needed for irrigation. Water for the Shepparton Irrigation Region is diverted from the river at Goulburn Weir, about 50km south of Shepparton.

Pine Lodge is situated in a temperate climate. The long term average rainfall is approximately 500mm, compared with average yearly evaporation of around 1500mm. With hot and dry summers accounting for this rainfall deficit, irrigation is required year-round to maintain plant growth.

Most of the farm’s land cover is irrigated dairy pasture. Most paddocks are around three to four hectares with several larger paddocks around 20 hectares. The small paddocks have been laser levelled to provide a gentle slope to enable small bays to be flood irrigated. Farm water for the stock and irrigating the pastures is supplied from a large farm dam and from irrigation water purchased from the regional water authority.

Ian notes, “We have developed a complex system of small and larger paddocks that are irrigated using flood irrigation. Almost all the 261 hectares are irrigated at varying stages in the course of a year. The system of channels is linked to a major storage and reticulation dam on the farm”.

Flood irrigation using a border check system is used. The irrigation bays range from 200 to 400 metres long. The Kleins also established a water reticulation system for capturing and reusing irrigation and rain-fed surface flows. Any water runoff goes to the lowest point on the farm, which has a large recycle system – to be used again for irrigation.

Rain water, held in a 255,000 litre tank, is reserved for washing milking equipment and cleaning the milk storage vat. Dam water is used to wash down the dairy

Increased pasture and milk production meant more profit that enabled the Kleins to improve the standard of water reticulation and flood irrigation. “We laser level the bays that are growing pastures with a light re-grade as required to give us much higher water use efficiency. We have also installed a water reticulation system that captures runoff from irrigation and overland flows from high rainfall events. The benefits of this large water holding capacity are: no water leaves our farm except in major flood events; we recycle the water more effectively and we only purchase additional water when needed.”

Pastures used to be irrigated every six days during the summer months. Thanks to the better soil structure and increased water-holding capacity now achieved, irrigation is only required each 9 or 10 days.

image of irrigation channels
Left: Irrigation supply channel. Centre & right: Pine Lodge irrigation bays

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HEALTHY SOILS, HEALTHY PASTURES

Our farming enterprise is like our family’s health. We use natural inputs and products to maintain good health and well-being.

The soils of the property are classified as loams and clay loams developed from alluvium deposited over many years by the Goulburn River and previous streams. Soil mineral balance has been of greater concern than organic carbon levels.

Ian comments, “In 1996 we ceased using synthetic weed and pest control and applying synthetic fertilisers. Instead we applied numerous conditioners to the soil including gypsum, lime and dolomite as well as molasses and guano. By making this move to more biologically-based approach to farming, we began to observe a number of changes in our farm”.

As a result of the application of the soil bio-fertilisers, the Kleins have observed improvements in the health of their soil. More worms are visible, and the soil has better structure and nutrient balance. The Kleins regularly have soils tests done on each paddock to determine which nutrients are limiting production. Based on the test results, the soil conditions are addressed to achieve the highest levels of productivity. Wendy happily reports, “Finally, the calcium level in our soil is close to where it should be!”

Wendy also notes, “I have farm (independent) soil tests for the past 14 years and it is very rewarding to see the benefits of our farming practices in increased organic matter in the soils. This helps conserve nutrients and water in the soil – much needed for the climate we now farm in”.

The change in management to biologically-based practices also saw the Kleins be more careful in stimulating ecological processes. When combined with integrated pasture and pest management systems, this has seen pastures become more productive, growing for longer periods through the year, and significantly fewer interventions required to prevent health problems in the cows.

The enterprise involves intensive management of perennial and annual pastures. A rotational system of summer (perennial) and winter (annual) pastures is followed.

Each three to four hectare paddock is sown to perennial or permanent pasture comprising white clover and rye grass. This is irrigated regularly to maintain high levels of production. These paddocks are grazed every 28 days. Every year each paddock is treated with an effluent/bacteria mix after summer grazing and then irrigated again.

In winter the cows graze on the 20 hectare paddocks, which are annual pastures on subterranean clover. In February-March these pastures are watered to provide growth for the winter months.

The system of smaller and larger paddocks and the use of electric fencing has gained efficient pasture utilisation throughout the growing season.

A foliar spray comprising lime, molasses and borax in a rain water base is also applied to each paddock each year.

image of stock brand
Pine Lodge farm plan.

The farm has few weeds and pests due to the intensive management of the pastures. Keeping internal irrigation channels clear for irrigation purposes is sometimes a problem, as herbicides cannot be sprayed to suppress vegetation growth. Though not as successful as spraying, the Kleins are using other methods and looking at the vegetation in a new light.

image of stock brand
Remnant grey box woodland forms part of the dedicated biodiversity patch on the property.

“We manage excessive biomass in the channels by using two people with whipper-snippers. Excess vegetation growing in the irrigation channels has benefits in that it cleans the water”, Ian notes. Any other weeds are managed by slashing or mulching, ultimately returning nutrients back into the soil.

A small section of the farm has a reasonable cover of remnant grey box (Eucalyptus microcarpa) trees which are encouraged to regenerate. As a certified organic farm, 5% of the property must be maintained for biodiversity. Wendy notes, “Grey box were the predominant large trees in this area, and we have tried to plant other species indigenous to this area… with enormous effort we managed to get a large percentage of the trees through the drought, only to see many get swamped in the last two years and die of wet feet”. Regenerating trees are protected using tree-guards to prevent the cattle from damaging the young trees.

Wendy observes that there are now more birds, frogs, worms, dung beetles, spiders, bats and beneficial wasps. The dam is near a large remnant vegetation area and is also a haven for bird life. No chemicals have been used for 16 years, and pests are not seen as a problem at all.

On being organic, Ian notes, “An added benefit has seen us lower our costs for weed control and pest management”.

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PRODUCTION & PERSONAL HIGHLIGHTS

By improving the health of our soils, water and pastures and cows we have peace of mind that our environment is healthier than when we first began.

Wendy states, “When evaluating the farm’s environmental performance, I would look at where the farm was 15 years ago and where it is now – and the improvement and benefits – both environmentally and financially – are obvious”.

Ian points out, “The enterprise is profitable – but as for most agricultural businesses, the drought made life very difficult for a long time”. Even with the challenges of drought, both animal and soil health are greatly improved and financial inputs reduced as a result of the changes the Kleins introduced. They aim to achieve a balance between inputs and outputs regarding pasture productivity and milk yield. Wendy adds, “The farm is viable, partly due to the free fertiliser the farm now generates from the continuous recycling of waste products produced on the farm, no chemicals are purchased and all water is recycled”.

“We made a few mistakes and lost a few good cows along the way – but we composted the dead animals and made fertiliser out of them.”

On average the Kleins are obtaining greater than a 10% price premium compared to other producers. They are achieving this because of the natural product and through systems of management that can produce regular and reliable milk yield from season to season.

“Even if we were not getting a price premium, we would still farm the way we are because of the benefits to us personally and to the wider society”, Wendy says.

By changing from conventional farming practices to working with more natural inputs and processes the Kleins:

  • have much richer looking and biologically active soils and more earthworms
  • have improved soil friability making it much easier to work, therefore using much less fuel
  • have dramatically reduced veterinarian costs

“Our farming enterprise is like our family’s health. We use natural inputs and products to maintain good health and well-being. The same is true for our farm. We aim to have active, ecologically healthy, functioning soils that produce high quality pastures; that feed healthy cows producing safe and wholesome milk.”

Ian and Wendy have confidence that their management systems are having a minimal impacts off-farm. Their approach is to, where possible, grow all animal feed requirements on farm so that they are satisfied with the quality and health of the products they are producing. This approach offers considerable benefits both private and public.

Wendy comments, “We are not using anything detrimental to us, our animals or our environment – so we all benefit from that, even people who don’t know us or how we farm”.

“We aim to live with and work close to nature, understanding the seasons and cycles of life. Our systems of management are built on understanding ecological and biological processes. By improving the health of our soils, water and pastures and cows we have peace of mind that our environment is healthier than when we first began. We can also assure those who use our farm produce that it is of a high standard for human health and wellbeing.”
 

image of dairy cows

THIS CASE STUDY WAS PUBLISHED IN SEPTEMBER 2012 AS PART OF THE SOILS FOR LIFE INNOVATIONS FOR REGENERATIVE LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PROJECT.
DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT REPORT OR CONTACT US TO ORDER A COPY.

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‘PROSPECT PASTORAL COMPANY’ – AGAINST ALL ODDS – TURNING SAND INTO PROFIT

REGENERATIVE AGRICULTURE CASE STUDY

AGAINST ALL ODDS: TURNING SAND INTO PROFIT

Initially investing in 660 hectares of marginal and degraded wheat country, Ian and Dianne Haggerty have built up a successful production area of 8000 hectares producing cereals and sheep on limited rainfall and sandy salt-affected soils.

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FARM FACTS | INTRODUCTION | PROPERTY BACKGROUND | CHANGING PRACTICES | SOIL MANAGEMENT | WATER MANAGEMENT | VEGETATION MANAGEMENT | PRODUCTION | OUTCOMES

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FARM FACTS

Wyalkatchem, Dowerin, Cunderdin and Meckering districts, around 190 km north east of Perth, WA Central Wheatbelt

ENTERPRISE: Crops. Sheep. Cereal grains and cereal hay crops; specially-bred sheep for wool and premium grade fat lambs

PROPERTY SIZE: 8000 hectares

AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL: 200-300 mm (home farm)

ELEVATION: 320 m (home farm)

MOTIVATION FOR CHANGE

  • Reducing rainfall and rising input costs

INNOVATIONS

  • Introduction of biological fertilisers and zero tillage to improve soil function and structure
  • Integration of grazing with cropping to enhance nutrient cycling and soil structure
  • Revegetation to limit spread of salt
  • Innovations commenced: 1994

KEY RESULTS

  • Successful crop production on 100mm rainfall
  • Increased soil water-holding capacity
  • Sheep bred to adapt to local environment lambing at 90%-150% and producing high quality 17-20 micron wool

INTRODUCTION

Ian and Dianne Haggerty, and their son James, run a holistic and integrated program of cropping and grazing. The program is underpinned by their shared deep commitment to the regeneration of the fertility of the marginal soils of their area. This is achieved through use of biological fertilisers, zero tillage and the consequent growth of healthy cereal plants to deliver high tonnages of premium grain per hectare. The healthy ground cover of the cropping and pasture also provides the key to maintaining high levels of soil moisture and ensuring weed control.

Over the years, Ian and Dianne have developed their own Merino stud and a working sheep flock from local and South Australian bloodlines. This indigenous flock has been bred to be totally acclimatised to the land farmed by the Haggertys.

Their production area is now spread over a number of holdings equalling 8000 hectares of their own property, leased land and share-farming enterprises. This diversity has enabled more effective management across various landscape conditions and rainfall availability.

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SETTLING IN

image of wheatbelt landscape
Local landscape with salt lake in the distance.

Ian and Dianne came to the original property in Wyalkatchem in 1994 after having run a successful business at Derby in the north west of Western Australia. They had a long shared desire to be farmers and naturally gravitated towards their origins in the Eastern Wheat belt of Western Australia.

The original property purchased by Ian and Dianne lies on undulating semi-arid country to the north of Wyalkatchem WA, bordering on Wallambin Salt Lake. Due to the size and location of the property, farm advisors originally suggested the best alternative was to get out before they got started, however this only challenged the Haggertys to make a good go of things. For the first few years they made a start with the help of machinery from Dianne’s father who owns a neighbouring property.

During the remainder of the 1990s rainfall proved relatively reliable with mostly average rainfall seasons, some excellent seasons and a couple of dry seasons. Following conventional best practise at this time proved profitable and enabled Ian and Dianne to begin acquiring their own machinery.

However, through experiencing the couple of dry seasons, the Haggertys realised the vulnerability of the farming system they were following, as the production decline in these years was significant. Observations of poorly developed root systems and the low resilience of plants to short springs encouraged Ian and Dianne to explore what might be limiting these factors within the soil. This instigated an ongoing pursuit of knowledge regarding soil health and soil productivity.

In addition, rising input costs without a corresponding rise in productivity also provided cause for concern. From this grew a desire to enable the soil to produce an optimum outcome with whatever seasonal conditions unfolded – without expensive inputs.

With the coming of the new decade the rainfall patterns made a determined turn for the worse, with mostly below-average rainfall patterns or significant “dry spells”. This gave the Haggertys a clear indicator that moisture was king, and rainfall preservation and optimal use would be the most powerful profit driver for the enterprise.

Whilst in Derby, Ian and Dianne had made contact with Robyn Tredwell 1Robyn Tredwell was the Australian Rural Woman of the Year 1995., manager of Birdwood Downs Station. It was here that they learnt the principles of using livestock as “weeders, seeders and feeders” in regenerating pastures with appropriate management. This experience was an early trigger for Ian and Dianne to investigate many of nature’s processes; how careful management could enable successful utilisation of nature’s efficiencies at minimal cost. This view was also supported by Dr Elaine Ingham and Dr Arden Andersen with whom the Haggertys commenced their education in biological agriculture. Understanding of livestock management and interaction with the soil environment was further enhanced by learning with Jane Hinge of South Australia.

The original 660 hectare purchase has since been expanded over the years by leasing and share farming enterprises throughout the districts of Wyalkatchem, Dowerin and Meckering. These additional properties are not adjacent, so distance is a constant factor in farming management.

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HOLISTIC MANAGEMENT

The grazing operations are integral to the whole. The cropping and hay production contribute to our production of premium wool and lamb, but the sheep are playing their part in fertilising the land and working the soil for us.

Each of the properties managed by the Haggertys produce cereal grains (wheat, oats and barley), cereal hay and sheep for wool and meat. The inclusion of leased land and share-farming enterprises in various locations in their operations has given Ian and Dianne the option of cropping and grazing on different soil types and in different rainfall zones. They can also move sheep to optimise feed on offer and water supply and can choose the location and intensity of cropping operations against landscape conditions and rainfall availability from one part of the enterprise to another.

Ian and Dianne are careful to ensure that each practice that comprises the holistic management of their cropping and grazing operations contributes to the whole. Only the highest quality components underpin the individual and carefully thought out farming practices.

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CROPPING

image of wheat head
Grain head size is seen as a reliable indicator of soil health.

To grow cereals, Ian and Dianne use a process of no-tillage direct drilling of grain seed, supported by application of biological fertilisers, based on high grade worm liquid and compost extract at a cost of $30 a hectare. Cereal stubble and areas of perennial shrubs – Rhagodia spp., saltbush (Atriplex spp.) and tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis), or tree lucerne, – provide grazing for sheep in summer and autumn. Winter and spring grazing is provided by annual volunteer plants, grasses and legumes.

Enhanced microbial activity in the soil and the use of specially-bred sheep as the ‘farm machinery’ above the surface has lifted the resilience and fertility of the land, improving the soil function, structure and water-holding capacity and continuing to value-add to the productivity of the landscape.

“We truck our worm juice and compost from the Victoria and New South Wales suppliers with a proven record of providing only the highest grade products. The compost extract is produced by our own centrifuge which was sourced from the United States”, Ian notes.

The Haggertys have a preference for older varieties of grain that were in common use before the introduction of farming methods which rely on high levels of chemical intervention. They are constantly on the lookout for additions to their seed bank.

Seeds are microbiologically coated before sowing. Ian has integrated a low pressure liquid fertiliser circuit into their seeder so that the microbiologically coated seed is drilled into a microbial environment stimulated by the liquid fertiliser. This ensures that the plant is supported from germination to early growth.
 

image of seed drill
The seed drill microbiologically coats the seed and applies liquid fertiliser to stimulate growth.

 
When Ian digs over a shovel full of heavy red soil in the paddock it becomes obvious how each plant growing in it acts as a carbon pump. The plant root growth has broken up sub-surface hard pan in these heavier soils affected by earlier farming methods. By not providing water soluble fertilisers with the seed, extensive root system growth is stimulated and the plant is able to reach wider and more deeply for moisture and nutrition.

image of healthy plant roots
Extensive root growth is a sign of a healthy nutrient system.

Similarly, observation of root growth in the poorer sandy soils in other paddocks being cropped, show the extensive root growth which adds carbon and nutrients to the soils. These roots hold the soils together and spread the microbial environment within the soil.

As Ian describes, “Healthy flourishing plants slow down runoff from the meagre rainfall, that can be as little as 100mm during the growing period, the microbial activity and associated improvement in soil structure maximises the retention of moisture in the soil”.

“Crop quality is checked by periodic testing of tissue nutrient levels and inspection of grain head development during growth. We find this is a more reliable measure of what is available to plants from the soil, rather than testing the soil itself.”TOP

GRAZING

image of sheep amongst crop stubble
Pregnant ewes amongst wheat stubble.
image of sheep
The sheep have been specifically bred to suit the environment.

“Once grain is harvested, the stubble of the crop grown in this high microbial environment provides nutritious grazing fodder for the sheep. In due course, remnant stubble is trampled down and is broken down by fungi to add to the organic carbon in the soil. Together with the dung provided by the sheep and their stimulation of the soil surface by walking on it, the soils become a gift that keeps on giving.”

Ian and Dianne have carefully bred their line of sheep to be adaptive to their local environment. Through a combination of their breeding and grazing practices, including short, controlled periods of grazing in individual paddocks, the sheep are resistant to stomach parasites and do not require drenching. The sheep have been bred for clean legs, faces and crutches; the Haggertys do not practice mulesing but maintain regular crutching.

The sheep thrive on cereal stubble and native shrubs and grasses as their rumen flora is totally adapted to maximising nutrient extraction from roughage. The livestock do not receive any grain supplementation. The sheep are shorn every eight months and produce lambs at a rate between 90 and 150% per annum. As the Haggertys say, “We couldn’t afford to replace our ewes. They have developed into hardy, efficient producers with minimal artificial support highly adapted to our local environment. They could not be replaced easily”.

Alpacas run with each flock of sheep to reduce the threat from foxes.

Dianne points out, “The grazing operations are integral to the whole. The cropping and hay production contribute to our production of premium wool and lamb, but the sheep are playing their part in fertilising the land and working the soil for us”.

The sheep produce high quality 17-20 micron wool (8-9kg average per fleece adjusted for 12 months growth) and premium grade fat lambs. Some of the Haggerty’s stud rams are sold to other farmers looking for robust, economical performance.

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THE WHOLE

None of this would be completely effective without our understanding of the land as a living organism…

The Haggertys note, “The spread of our operations throughout the district enables us to maximise the virtues of each piece of land and minimise its shortcomings. We have learnt what each paddock can contribute to our operations season by season and what we need to do for that paddock to ensure the continuation of its productivity”.

“None of this would be completely effective without our understanding of the land as a living organism and our connection to its life cycle. As we contribute to it, we live from it, we live with it – we must understand its nature and its inner life, what it gives to us and what it needs from us to work on our behalf.”

image of crop growing in sandy soil
Predicted seasons and conditions are strongly considered when choosing land for cropping. The potential for productivity when biological processes are introduced can be clearly seen on these sandy soils.

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WITH WHAT WATER?

The farming operations continue to deliver high quality grains and cereal hay at significant yields even when the rainfall during the growing season has been as low as 100mm. Average annual rainfall has been only 200-300mm since 2000.

Because of the low average rainfall and the predominance of lower rainfall and drought years over higher than average years, Ian and Dianne plan for operations in drier conditions as being the norm. Their cropping strategies and practices emphasise retention of water in the soils through soil quality management and by minimising runoff and evaporation. In this context, they choose cropping land with the best potential for a high yield in the predicted season ahead.

The runoff in all paddocks is so minimal that they do not rely to any great degree on dams for stock water, although at least one dam in one of the cropping/pasture paddocks is fed by ground water. The mainstay of stock watering is water from the wheat belt watering scheme that pipes water from Mundaring Dam.

graph of rainfall 1994-2010 showing 9 years below average rainfall and 3 above

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ON WHAT SOIL?

With the varied properties, the enterprise is spread over diverse soil types. These include the heavier red clay loam known locally as ‘Morrell’ soil, light acidic sands known as ‘Wodgil’ soil, deep leached sand, sand over clay and ironstone gravels. The biological and no-till strategies and practices adopted by Ian and Dianne are aimed at:

sandy and dark soils
The sandy soil (on spade) is visibly improved with organic matter after only two crops.
  • breaking through shallow, sub-surface hard pan in heavy soils caused by previous high till, high chemical farming
  • breaking up clay mosaics
  • opening the soil’s surface to water penetration
  • building up soil structure that allows roots to penetrate deeply and widely
  • efficient breakdown of stubble and litter by microbes and fungi
  • weaning newly acquired land from chemicals while maintaining production

Ian and Dianne are faced with considerable dry land salinity, particularly on land close to Lake Wallambin where salt is picked up by wind and deposited on their land. They have planted lanes of saltbush and acacia in these areas. They use sheep to graze these areas and contribute to soil fertility through dung deposit. In the more saline areas they sometimes put out hay to attract the sheep to these areas and concentrate dung around the feeding point.

Below the surface, the action of microbes, fungi, worms and dung beetles is obvious in any shovel full of paddock soil. Above the surface, trees, shrubs and ground cover sustain other micro bio-diverse environments that support insect life and reptiles, including a few hardy frogs. There are numerous bird species and macro fauna using these areas. This biodiversity can be traced back to the strategies and practices Ian and Dianne have developed under their vision for biological farming.

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VEGETATION MANAGEMENT

Once grain is harvested, the stubble of the crop grown in this high microbial environment provides nutritious grazing fodder for the sheep…

The saltbush lanes help to control the movement of salt from the salt lake. Ian and Dianne have also planted a number of different species of annuals and perennials to help manage the spread of salt. Many failed, and they learned from that experience that the annual pasture legume, yellow serradella, has proven a good survivor. It does well in acidic soils, has deep roots and is a prolific seed producer. Native grasses are returning to cropping paddocks and grow well if there is summer rain. However, the prime source of grazing fodder in summer and autumn is cereal stubble.

Ian and Dianne are careful not to impact on the residual paddock trees or clumps of bushland. They have also planted salmon gums (Eucalyptus salmonophloia) and other species to foster the growth of stock shelter and wildlife corridors, and to reduce the impact of salt from the nearby Lake Wallambin. Use of a tree planter allows for large numbers of seedlings to be planted quickly. In one location they have fenced off a particularly representative plot of ancient residual Mallee to preserve its integrity.

As they work up and develop the potential of a newly acquired piece of land, Ian and Dianne will immediately use the livestock to begin the process of biologically inoculating soil that may not have had biological activity encouraged for some time. They are quickly able to reduce rates of chemical use by altering the soil surface and not providing the excess nitrogen and phosphorous that weeds seem to thrive on. The main species of weeds are barley grass (Hordeum spp.), annual rye grass (Lolium rigidum) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). The former respond to herbicides, but, in some cases of heavy radish infestation, which is hard to kill with herbicides, Ian prefers to slash whole paddocks and then turns them over to grazing significantly reducing seed set for the following crop season.

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THE TEAM WORKS

image of Ian holding a healthy plant
Ian Haggerty showing the healthy root development of plants grown in sandy soil.

Ian and Dianne are working together in a close partnership, Ian managing cropping and Dianne managing animal production, but working together to integrate both production streams. Eldest son James is also working on the property, having graduated from agricultural college. Other members of their families are located on nearby properties.

Together, the Haggertys are continuing and improving regeneration of farming landscape in every part of the enterprise in terms of both soil fertility and soil water-holding capacity, whilst minimising the impact of ground salinity. Their production is showing a continuing trend to higher yields per millimetre of rainfall and higher quality of cereal grains and cereal hay. The home grown Merino stud and flock ewes acclimatised to the property are producing high grade wool and fat lambs for ‘boutique’ butchers.

Ian and Dianne keep detailed records of inputs to their enterprises and have an encyclopaedic knowledge of the success and failures over the years. They believe that landholders must monitor carefully the transitions in their own land and their financial capacity to enact change. They note that there is always good advice out there somewhere but, even when you find it, external input can only help you so far. Ultimately, the farmer is responsible for their own learning and farm development.

The Haggertys also reinforce that farmers must be prepared to try things that may not necessarily work. Ian and Dianne have been involved in trialling many species of perennial pastures, both grasses and shrubs, to extend the ‘green grazing window’ throughout the prolonged dry summer and autumn period which is typical in Western Australia. To date some introduced species are managing to survive including Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana), Gatton panic (Panicum maximum) and tall wheat grass (Thinopyrum ponticum), however the most reliable performers in dry seasons are the saltbush, Rhagodia, native wattle and tagasaste shrubs. Encouraging the right environment for native perennial grasses to flourish in the event of summer rain is a priority.

The Prospect Pastoral Company is very much a busy family enterprise and a personal priority. Ian and Dianne work closely together to integrate cropping and grazing with the geography of their operation enabling much opportunity along with a large commitment of time to monitor and manage. Nonetheless, they are always willing to share their knowledge and experience with others, attending field days on a wide range of topics and themes and maintaining involvement with the local Landcare group.

image of hay bales

THIS CASE STUDY WAS PUBLISHED IN SEPTEMBER 2012 AS PART OF THE SOILS FOR LIFE INNOVATIONS FOR REGENERATIVE LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PROJECT.
DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT REPORT OR CONTACT US TO ORDER A COPY.

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